Cats

Government regulations and scientific guidance documents from both Europe and the United States provide detailed information about the requirements and recommendations for housing cats used for research in ways that take into account their social, physiological and ethological needs1-3. This page builds upon this information to formulate what can be considered ‘best practices’ in laboratory cat welfare with an emphasis on housing and enrichment.

Domestication and social structure

The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) evolved from the African wild cat (Felis silvestris libyca), which is largely a solitary, territorial hunter4. Research has shown that although domestic cats too may live singly, they are also found in large socially structured groups5  with a high degree of cooperation. In contrast with dogs, which are social pack animals, cats have not been forced by selection pressures to develop as wide a range of social communication repertoires, formal group structures, or mechanisms for diffusing or reconciling after conflicts4-6. For cats, the primary mechanism for avoiding conflict is social distance7, which means that housing arrangements must provide adequate space for cats to control their interactions with conspecifics, including refuges where they can hide and rest out of sight. Conflicts tend to arise over important resources, such as access to food, resting places, and litter trays. Accordingly these must be provided in sufficient quantity and in different locations throughout the enclosure to allow easy access by all cats and limit opportunities for guarding and monopolisation of resources4.

Socialisation

Cats that are well socialised are less stressed and easier to handle, which is beneficial not only to the cat, but also to handlers, and can have implications for the overall validity of study results. In cats, friendliness to humans is, in part, genetically inherited from the father. It has been demonstrated that kittens from ‘friendly’ fathers tend to react with greater boldness when faced with unfamiliar people and novel objects8. Furthermore, the development of social behaviour in cats is profoundly affected by early socialisation with people and conspecifics. The sensitive period for kitten’s socialisation to humans and possibly to conspecifics is two to seven weeks of age9. Socialisation to humans is especially crucial during this period, and continues to be important throughout life, for their development of friendly relationships to humans.

Animals that receive early handling by humans tend to develop more rapidly, and show a general reduction in fearfulness10,11. These effects are likely to depend on a number of factors, including the type, frequency and duration of handling, as well as the number of different people involved in the handling12. It is recommended that young kittens are handled gently and spoken to on a daily basis4. In addition to providing exposure to people and other cats, it is important to habituate kittens to environmental conditions, routine husbandry, and experimental procedures likely to be encountered during their daily lives3. In most cases, principles of operant conditioning (e.g. behavioural shaping) can be used during training sessions to induce voluntary cooperation13-15. All of this has implications for the careful selection of suppliers of cats, and the care of kittens born within research colonies.

Housing

Space

The most basic aspect of housing is the amount of space available to each animal. Minimum space requirements for the housing of cats in laboratories in Europe are given in Annex III of Directive 2010/63/EU and Appendix A to the Council of Europe Convention ETS 123. When developing an enrichment programme, increasing the use of vertical space and enhancing the complexity of the environment will do more to improve welfare than simply increasing floor space16,17. Enclosures should be of sufficient height to allow caretakers to walk in, as this makes it easier to interact with the cats and conduct maintenance activities18.

 

Floor area (excluding shelves) (m2)

Shelves (m2)

Height (m)

Minimum for 1 adult cat

1.5

0.5

2

For each additional cat add

0.75

0.25

--

The minimum space in which a queen and litter may be held is the space for a single cat, gradually increased so that by four months of age, litters are housed using the above requirements for adults

Grouping

Although dimensions are provided for single animals, it is recommended that cats be housed in socially compatible, stable groups. The recommended number of cats that should be housed together in a primary enclosure varies between five and 2519,20. The European guidelines recommend groups of up to 123.

Cats that are unable to adapt to group housing may do better in a pair housing arrangement. If a cat proves unable to live harmoniously with conspecifics, he or she should be housed singly with optional visual access to other cats4, and particular attention should be paid to providing social enrichment through additional daily contact with people3. If research requires single housing for periods of time, cats can often be returned to social groups in between trials or for a period each day21,22.

The success of group housing depends on the social compatibility of the cats, their ability to manage distance from one another, and easy access for all group members to comfortable resting places, food, water, and litter trays. In addition, housing should be structured to provide mental stimulation and allow cats to express a wide range of normal behaviours including climbing, jumping, stretching, exploring, playing, chasing, and hiding19,24. The floor of enclosures should be smooth, non-slip and easy to clean3,4. Wire mesh or grid floors are uncomfortable for cats, and may cause injury to their paws or tails4.

Enclosure furniture

Of particular importance is the availability of elevated and vertical structures such as platforms, shelves, raised walkways, resting boxes, hammocks, and cat ‘trees'. Steps, climbing poles, and slanted walkways should be available to help cats reach higher level structures4. Cats prefer and spend more time in elevated areas than on the floor23, and because many cats are not well-adapted to living in close proximity to one another, having a variety of resting and hiding places provides one way for cats to maintain distance and avoid conflict, which in turn minimises stress18. Scratching posts, cat trees, and carpeted structures provide opportunities for the natural behaviours of claw sharpening and scent marking23.

Cats prefer resting areas that are warm, dry, protected on one or two sides, and situated in corners or on the edges of an enclosure; this provides them with a vantage point from which to observe without the threat of being approached from behind (Roy 1992 and Smith 1990, in McCune 199521,25,26). There should be a sufficient number of resting areas for each cat, as cats may want to rest alone, and they will rest in litter trays if no other areas are available4,23,26,27.  When litter trays are used as rest areas it not only creates a hygiene concern, it forces other cats to eliminate in undesirable locations24.

Comfortable bedding should be provided in resting areas, and research has shown that cats prefer polyester fleece over other materials28. Cats that sleep on soft surfaces have longer periods of sleep than those who sleep on hard surfaces, which has been interpreted as a sign of an enhanced sense of security27.

Typically, at least one litter tray for every two cats in the enclosure is recommended. In any case, sufficient litter trays should be provided to prevent inappropriate toilet behaviour3,4,19,29. Some cats will not use a tray if it has already been soiled, so trays need to be cleaned a minimum of once per day, and ideally multiple times per day4. Cats may have preferences for different types of litter or litter trays, and it may therefore be worthwhile to provide a variety of toileting options13,24.  Litter trays and feeding areas should be located at least 0.5m apart, and locations for these functions should not be interchanged3.

Interaction with conspecifics

Domestic cats form matrilineal social groups, and most females will remain in the same social group for life. Unneutered females can be housed in groups, as can neutered cats of both sexes. Whole males can be successfully housed together (though this will require special care)3, or with neutered cats of either sex19,24. One strategy is to house cats based on maternal grouping when possible, with male and/or female cats being neutered at six months of age13,28. Due to the territorial nature of cats, the re-grouping or introduction of new cats to the colony should be done as infrequently as possible, but when necessary, it should be undertaken gradually and with great care (see Rochlitz24 for a potential means of introduction)30. Cats well socialised to other cats are much easier to integrate so this is an important part of their preparation for group living in later life. Environments which provide a choice of resources will facilitate integration of cats new to a group.

Social stress in all pair- or group-housing situations should be monitored on a regular basis (at least weekly) using an established behavioural and/or physiological stress scoring system3.

Interaction with humans

Daily handling by people is critical to the early socialisation of kittens, but people are also a rich source of stimulation for juvenile and adults cats, particularly for those kept in a relatively restricted environment21. Consistency and predictability of the type of interaction or handling are important factors in the success of cat-human interaction30-32. As stated by Rochlitz, “the caregiver is the most important determinant of a cat’s welfare, and group-housing in enriched environments cannot substitute for individual human care and attention33. In order to ensure the highest level of welfare, caregivers should like cats and be knowledgeable about them. Periods of time each day that are not part of normal maintenance activities should be set aside for interaction among cats and their caregivers22,33,34.

Environmental enrichment

Social interaction with people and conspecifics, as well as the provision of a complex environment, are all aspects of enrichment, but there are numerous other strategies that can be employed to enhance the welfare of laboratory cats35. Ellis (2009) lists the most commonly reported goals of environmental enrichment as to:

  • Increase behavioural diversity
  • Reduce frequency of abnormal behaviour
  • Increase the range or number of ‘normal’ (i.e., species-typical) behaviour patterns
  • Increase positive utilisation of the environment
  • Increase the ability to cope with challenges in a more normal way32

Ellis (2009) cautions, however, that a simple change in behaviour does not indicate improved welfare. A change in behaviour can be welfare neutral (or negative), which necessitates the use and monitoring of behavioural measures known to correlate with welfare, in addition to physiological and cognitive indicators of welfare32.

Toys

Cats enjoy a variety of toys, but prefer those that move, possess characteristics of prey, contain catnip, or have complex surface textures (Hall 1995, in Hall & Bradshaw 1998)36. Toys that allow cats to move through all phases of the hunting sequence (i.e., chase, pounce, capture, consummatory behaviours) are potentially more satisfying to cats than those that do not32. Toys should be rotated frequently, as novelty is important to cats, and they quickly become bored if a toy is always available. Simple objects such as large paper bags and cardboard boxes can be added to the enclosure intermittently to encourage play and exploration33. Most cats play alone, rather than in groups, so the enclosure must be of sufficient size to ensure that cats can play safely without disturbing others4.

Feeding methods

Natural feeding behaviours in cats include locating, capturing, killing, and processing food. Employing feeding devices (either commercial or homemade) that allow cats to forage and perform a range of natural behaviours to obtain food has been reported to improve some aspects of physical welfare37, though psychological and behavioural benefits have, at this stage, only been reported anecdotally; see Ellis 200932for pictures and descriptions for some of these devices. Rochlitz suggests that consideration should be given to providing containers of grass for cats to chew, as this is thought to help eliminate fur balls (trichobezoars)33.

Sensory stimulation

Visual stimulation is important to cats, and when given the opportunity, most will spend a great deal of time gazing out windows that overlook interesting environments. Access to windows4,13,26 and outdoor runs32, 33 have been reported as potential means of providing visual stimulation. When this type of access to the outside world is not possible, employing videos containing wildlife and conspecifics as a form of visual stimulation has been reported as an alternative strategy38. Although it has been demonstrated that cats will watch these types of projected images, Ellis cautions that providing stimulation in a situation where the cat is unable to interact with the source of the stimulation (e.g., laser pointers, objects on TV or on the other side of a window) may create frustration in some animals32.

Olfactory communication is important to cats, and they have a well-developed sense of smell. Providing surfaces for scratching allows cats to communicate with conspecifics via scent glands located between their digits. Many cats also enjoy the smell of catnip and will interact with the dried herb itself, or toys impregnated with the herb, by sniffing, pawing, and playing39. Sensitivity to catnip is inherited, and only 50 to 70% of cats will react to its odour32,40.

Related to olfactory stimulation is the nascent use of synthetic pheromones to enhance feline welfare. As reported by Ellis, Feliway (CEVA) has been shown to reduce anxiety and related behaviours, and Felifriend (CEVA) has been demonstrated to promote positive social interactions (between cats and humans, as well as between conspecifics)32. Use of synthetic pheromones may be useful when dealing with anxious or fearful cats41, or during the regrouping or introduction of new cats into an existing colony (see Pageat & Gaultier, 200342 and Mills, 200543 for reviews of the benefits of pheromones to some aspects of cat behaviour)44.

Playing classical music to domestic dogs has been shown to promote more restful behaviours45,46, and studies of auditory enrichment have been conducted with other species, but, to date, studies of auditory stimulation have not yet been conducted with domestic cats32.

Related resources

Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC) Information Resources on the Care and Welfare of Cats 

References

  1. United States Department of Agriculture [USDA]. (2013). Animal Welfare Act and Animal Welfare Regulations.  Retrieved from: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_welfare/downloads/Animal%20Care%20Blue%20Book%20-%202013%20-%20FINAL.pdf
  2. National Academies. (2011). Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Eighth Edition).  Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Retrieved from: http://www.nap.edu/download.php?record_id=12910
  3. CoE Convention ETS 123. (2006). European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals Use for Experimental and Other Scientific Purposes, Appendix A.  Retrieved from: http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/EN/Treaties/PDF/123-Arev.pdf.
  4. Rochlitz I (2002). Comfortable quarters for cats in research institutions. Comfortable Quarters for Laboratory Animals (pp. 50-55): Animal Welfare Institute. Retrieved from: http://awionline.org/pubs/cq02/Cq-cats.html.
  5. Casey RA,  Bradshaw JWS (2007). The assessment of welfare. In: The Welfare of Cats (Ed. Rochlitz I), Springer.
  6. van den Bos R (1998). Post-conflict stress-response in confined group-living cats (Felis silvestris catus). Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 59(4), 323-330.
  7. Leyhausen P (1979). Cat Behavior: The Predatory and Social Behavior of Domestic and Wild Cats. Taylor and Francis/ Garland STPM Press.
  8. McCune S (1995). The impact of paternity and early socialisation on the development of cats' behaviour to people and novel objects. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 45(1-2), 111-126.
  9. Karsh EB, Turner DC (1988). The human-cat relationship. In: The Domestic Cat: The Biology of its Behavior (Eds. Turner DC, Bateson P), Cambridge University Press.
  10. Meier GW (1961). Infantile handling and development in Siamese kittens.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 54(3), 284.
  11. Wilson M, Warren JM, Abbott L (1965). Infantile stimulation, activity, and learning by cats. Child Development, 36, 843-853.
  12. Bateson P (2000). Behavioural development in the cat. In: The Domestic Cat: The Biology of Its Behaviour (Eds. Turner DC, Bateson P), Cambridge University Press.
  13. Overall KL, Dyer D (2005). Enrichment strategies for laboratory animals from the viewpoint of clinical veterinary behavioral medicine: Emphasis on cats and dogs. ILAR Journal, 46(2), 202-216.
  14. American Association of Feline Practitioners [AAFP]. (2004). Feline Behavior Guidelines. Retrieved from: http://www.catvets.com/guidelines/practice-guidelines/behavior-guidelines
  15. Lockhart J, Wilson K, Lanman C (2013). The effects of operant training on blood collection for domestic cats. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 143, 128-134.
  16. Baumans V (2005). Science-based assessment of animal welfare: Laboratory animals. Revue scientifique et technique - Office international des épizooties, 24(2), 503-514. Retrieved from: http://web.oie.int/boutique/extrait/baumans503514.pdf
  17. Mansard P (1989). Some environmental considerations for small cats. Ratel,16, 12-15.
  18. Rochlitz I (2000). Feline welfare issues. In: The Domestic Cat: The Biology of Its Behaviour (Eds. Turner DC, Bateson P), Cambridge University Press.
  19. Geret PC, Riond B, Cattori V, Meli LM, Hofmann-Lehmann R, Lutz H (2011). Housing and care of laboratory cats: From requirements to practice. Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde, 153(4), 157-164.
  20. Hubrecht RC, Turner DC (1998). Companion animal welfare in private and institutional settings. In: Companion Animals in Human Health (Eds. Wilson C, Turner D), Sage Publications.
  21. McCune S (1995). Enriching the environment of the laboratory cat. In: Environmental Enrichment Information Resources for Laboratory Animals: 1965-1995: Birds, Cats, Dogs, Farm Animals, Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents. (Eds. Smith CP,  Taylor V) U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD and Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW), Potters Bar, Herts, UK. Retrieved from: http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/pubs/enrich/labcat.htm
  22. Loveridge G (1994). Provision of environmentally enriched housing for cats. Animal Technology: Journal of the Institute of Animal Technicians. 45(2), 69-87.
  23. Podberscek AL, Blackshaw JK, Beattie AW (1991). The behaviour of laboratory colony cats and their reactions to a familiar and unfamiliar person. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 31(1), 119-130.
  24. Rochlitz I (2000). Recommendations for the housing and care of domestic cats in laboratories. Laboratory Animals, 34, 1-9.
  25. Holmes R (1993). Environmental enrichment for confined dogs and cats. Animal Behaviour: The T.G. Hungerford Refresher Course for Veterinarians. Sydney.
  26. DeLuca A, Kranda K (1992). Environmental enrichment in a large animal facility. Lab Animal, 21, 38-44.
  27. Crouse SJ, Atwill ER, Lagana M, Houpt KA (1995). Soft surfaces: A factor in feline psychological well-being. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science, 34(6), 94-97.
  28. Hawthorne AJ, Loveridge GG, Horrocks LJ (1995). The behaviour of domestic cats in response to a variety of surface-textures. (pp. 84-94) In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Environmental Enrichment (Holst B, Ed.), Copenhagen 
  29. Hoskins J (1996). Population medicine and infectious disease. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 208(4), 510-512.
  30. Ellis SL, Rodan I, Carney HC, Heath S, Rochlitz I, Shearburn LD, Sundahl E, Westropp JL (2013). AAFP and ISFM feline environmental needs guidelines. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, 15(3), 219-230. Retrieved from: http://jfm.sagepub.com/content/15/3/219
  31. Carlstead K, Brown JL, Strawn W (1993). Behavioral and physiological correlates of stress in laboratory cats. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 38, 143-158.
  32. Ellis S (2009). Environmental enrichment: Practical strategies for improving feline welfare. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, 11, 901-912.
  33. Rochlitz I (2007). Housing and Welfare. In: The Welfare of Cats (Ed. Rochlitz I), Springer.
  34. Loveridge G (1998). Comfortable environmentally enriched housing for domestic cats. Retrieved from http://awionline.org/pubs/cq/cats.htm
  35. McCune S (2010) The Domestic Cat. In: The UFAW Handbook on The Care and Management of Laboratory and Other Research Animals. (Eds. Hubrecht R and Kirkwood J), Wiley-Blackwell.
  36. Hall SL, Bradshaw JWS (1998) The influence of hunger on object play by adult domestic cats. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 58,143-150.
  37. Clarke DL, Wrigglesworth D, Holmes K, Hackett R, Michel K (2005). Using environmental and feeding enrichment to facilitate feline weight loss. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 89(11-12), 427.
  38. Ellis SL, Wells DL (2008). The influence of visual stimulation on the behaviour of cats housed in a rescue shelter. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 113(1), 166-174.
  39. Ellis SL, Wells DL (2010). The influence of olfactory stimulation on the behaviour of cats housed in a rescue shelter. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 123(1), 56-62.
  40. Hart B (1977). Olfaction and Feline Behaviour. Feline Practice, 7, 8-10.
  41. Griffith CA, Steigerwald ES, Buffington CT (2000). Effects of a synthetic facial pheromone on behavior of cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 217(8), 1154-1156.
  42. Pageat P, Gaultier E (2003). Current research in canine and feline pheromones. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, 33(2), 187-211.
  43. Mills D (2005). Pheromonatherapy: theory and applications. In Practice, 27(7), 368-373.
  44. Pageat P, Tessier Y (1997). Usefulness of the F4 pheromone for prevention of intraspecific aggression in poorly socialised cats. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the First International Conference on Veterinary Behavioural Medicine, Birmingham, UK. Retrieved from: http://eprints.lincoln.ac.uk/1880/13/1_12.pdf
  45. Wells DL, Graham L, Hepper PG (2002). The influence of auditory stimulation on the behaviour of dogs housed in a rescue shelter. Animal Welfare, 11(4), 385-393.
  46. Kogan LR, Schoenfeld-Tacher R, Simon A (2012). Behavioral effects of auditory stimulation on kenneled dogs. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, 7(5), 268-275

Other references

  • Rochlitz I, (Ed.) (2005) The Welfare of Cats, Vol. 3., Springer.
  • Bradshaw JWS, Casey RA, Brown SL (2012) The Behaviour of the Domestic Cat, 2nd Edition, CABI.
  • Hubrecht R, Kirkwood, J (Eds.) (2010) The UFAW handbook on the care and management of laboratory and other research animals, 8th Edition, Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Turner DC, Bateson P (Eds.) (2000) The Domestic Cat: The Biology of its Behaviour, 2nd Edition. Cambridge.
Information provided by Sandra McCune and Alexandra Moesta, WALTHAM® Centre for Pet Nutrition, and Kathy Kruger, University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine.
Last updated: May 2014