- Resources and references
- Blood vessel cannulation technique in other animals
- All blood sampling techniques in the mouse
Sampling from the lateral saphenous vein is a relatively quick method of obtaining blood samples from all strains of mice. It does not require the animal to be warmed for sample collection.
Slides and videos of restraint, shaving and sampling for this technique are available on the websites of the Norwegian Reference Centre for Laboratory Animal Science and Alternatives and the University of Bergen.
Blood is collected from the lateral saphenous vein which runs dorsally and then laterally over the tarsal joint. The site is shaved either with a scalpel blade, using a gentle stroking motion in the direction of the hairs and holding the blade almost parallel to the skin to avoid cutting it, or with electric clippers. Shaving need only be repeated as the hair grows.
Conscious mice should be restrained either manually or using a restraint tube. This can cause stress and therefore the duration of restraint should be minimised. Where a restraint tube is used, it should be appropriate for the size of the mouse. All forms of restraining equipment should be frequently washed to prevent pheromonally-induced stress or cross-infection.
To collect blood, the hind leg should be immobilised in the extended position by applying gentle downward pressure immediately above the knee joint. This stretches the skin over the ankle, making it easier to shave, and immobilises the saphenous vein. An aseptic technique should be used. Anaesthesia is not necessary but may be used on welfare grounds for animals that are difficult to hold. Where sedatives contain peripheral vasodilators, doses should be low to avoid prolonged bleeding from the puncture site. A local anaesthetic cream (e.g. EMLA cream) can be applied to the site 30 minutes prior to blood sampling. The number of attempts to take a blood sample should be minimised (no more than three needle sticks in any one attempt). Blood is collected by capillary action into a haematocrit tube or passively into a tube.
Blood flow can be stopped by gentle finger pressure over the puncture site, or simple relaxation of the operator's grip on the animal's leg. Animals should not be returned to their cage before the blood flow has stopped.
No more than four blood samples should be taken within any 24-hour period. If more samples are needed, then temporary or surgical cannulation should be considered. The scab or blood clot is removed for multiple samples.
Mice may show temporary favouring of the limb following sampling from the saphenous vein.
|Number of samples||No more than four blood samples should be taken within any 24-hour period.|
|Sample volume||Up to 0.15 ml for a single sample, which can usually be repeated at 2-week intervals without disturbances to haematological status. Alternatively, multiple smaller samples (e.g. 0.01 ml daily), taking into account limits on sample volume.|
|Equipment||27G or 25G needle or lance|
|Staff resource||One person is required to take the blood sample.|
- Hem A, Smith AJ, Solberg P (1998), Blood collection using the saphenous vein: An alternative to retro-orbital collection, Vivarium and the University of Bergen
- A good practice guide to the administration of substances and removal of blood, including routes and volumes.
- van Herck et al. (2001), Blood sampling from the retro-orbital plexus, the saphenous vein and the tail vein in rats: comparative effects on selected behavioural and blood variables. Laboratory Animals. 35(2), 131-139
- Luzzi M et al. (2005), Collecting blood from rodents: a discussion by the Laboratory Animal Refinement and Enrichment Forum. Animal Technology and Welfare. 4 (2) 99-102.
- Evaluation of saphenous venepuncture and modified tail-clip blood collection in mice.
- Methods of blood collection in the mouse.
- Removal of blood from laboratory animals and birds.
- Saphenous vein puncture for blood sampling of the mouse, rat, hamster, gerbil, guinea pig, ferret and mink.