Skip to main content

New funding scheme: £4M available for proposals to establish infrastructure needed to accelerate use of non-animal methods. Apply now.

NC3Rs | 20 Years: Pioneering Better Science
Webinar and video

MRC/NC3Rs webinar: Using both sexes in animal experiments

Including both sexes in your experiments is increasingly being expected by regulators, funders and publishers. The MRC has recently introduced the requirement to include both sexes in experimental design and analysis plans for future funding rounds.

This joint webinar from the NC3Rs and the MRC explores how to address common challenges when planning, conducting and analysing animal experiments involving both sexes. It gives practical advice for including both sexes in experimental design and analysis and covers husbandry and other considerations when working with animals of both sexes, with tips to manage any issues. 

Webinar recording

Download the presentation slides

Further resources



  1. Karp NA and Reavey N (2018). Sex bias in preclinical research and an exploration of how to change the status quo. British Journal of Pharmacology 176(21):4107-4118 doi: 10.1111/bph.14539

  2. McCarthy MM (2015). Incorporating Sex as a Variable in Preclinical Neuropsychiatric Research. Schizophrenia Bulletin 41(5):1016-20 doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbv077

  3. Garcia-Sifuentes Y and Maney DL (2021). Reporting and misreporting of sex differences in the biological sciences. Elife 10 doi: 10.7554/eLife.70817

  4. Becker JB et al. (2016). Female rats are not more variable than male rats: a meta-analysis of neuroscience studies. Biol Sex Differ 7:34 doi: 10.1186/s13293-016-0087-5

  5. Prendergast BJ et al. (2014). Female mice liberated for inclusion in neuroscience and biomedical research. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 40:1-5 doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.01.0016.

  6. Bachmann AM et al. (2022). Genetic background and sex control the outcome of high-fat diet feeding in mice. iScience 25(6):104468 doi: 10.1016/j.isci.2022.104468

  7. Herbert E et al. (2020). The occurrence of tarsal injuries in male mice of C57BL/6N substrains in multiple international mouse facilities. PLoS One 15(6):e0230162 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0230162