Dr Anthony Holmes


Director of Science and Technology



Email address


Anthony has strategic oversight of the science and technology supported through NC3Rs; ensuring that the NC3Rs has a long-term and sustainable strategy for supporting the best science and technology and its use in practice to achieve 3Rs and wider scientific and economic benefits. He leads the CRACK IT open innovation programme.

View Anthony's Office-led projects

PA: Kayleigh Purdon

External roles

NC3Rs publications

Lilley E, Isbrucker R, Ragan I, Holmes A (2021) Integrating 3Rs approaches in WHO guidelines for the batch release testing of biologicals Biologicals DOI 10.1016/j.biologicals.2021.10.002

Kleinstreuer N, Holmes A (2021) Harnessing the power of microphysiological systems for COVID-19 research Drug Discovery Today DOI 10.1016/j.drudis.2021.06.020

Jackson SJ, Prior H, Holmes A (2018) The Use of Human Tissue in Safety Assessment J Pharm Tox Meth DOI 10.1016/j.vascn.2018.05.003

Holmes A, Charlton A, Derby B, Ewart L, Scott A, Shu W (2017) Rising to the challenge: applying biofabrication approaches for better drug and chemical product development. Biofabrication doi: 10.1088/1758-5090/aa7bbd

Holmes A, Bonner, F, Jones D (2015) Assessing drug safety in human tissues - what are the barriers? Nature Reviews Drug Discovery doi: 10.1038/nrd4662

Abbott-Banner KH, Holmes A, Adcock I, Rao NL, Barrett E, Knowles R (2015) Meeting report: Models of respiratory disease symposium Journal of Inflammation DOI 10.1186/1476-9255-10-s1-i1

Barnes P.J, Bonini S, Seeger W, Belvisi MG, Ward B, Holmes A. (2015) Barriers to new drug development in respiratory disease. Eur Respir J 45: 1197-207 doi: 10.1183/09031936.00007915

Edwards J, Belvisi M,Dahlen SE, Holgate S, Holmes A. (2015) Human tissue models for a human disease: what are the barriers? Thorax 70: 695-7 doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2014-206648

Percie du Sert N, Holmes A.M, Wallis M, Andrews PL. (2012) Predicting the emetic liability of novel chemical entities: a comparative study. British Journal of Pharmacology 165: 1848-1867 doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01669.x

Holmes A.M,  Solari R, Holgate S.T, (2011) Animal models of asthma: value, limitations and opportunities for alternative approaches.Drug Discovery Today 16: 659-670 doi: 10.1016/j.drudis.2011.05.014

Holmes A.M, Creton S, Chapman K. (2010) Working in partnership to advance the 3Rs in toxicity testing Toxicology 12: 14-19 doi:10.1016/j.tox.2009.11.006

Westmoreland C, Holmes A.M,  (2009) Assuring consumer safety without animals: Applications for tissue engineering Organogenesis 5: 67-72. No doi, click to view.

Holmes A.M, Rudd JA, Tattersall FD, Q Aziz, Andrews PLR. (2009) Opportunities for the replacement of animals in the study of nausea and vomiting British Journal of Pharmacology 157: 865-80 doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2009.00176.x

Holmes A, Brown R, Shakesheff K (2009) Engineering tissue alternatives to animals: applying tissue engineering to basic research and safety testing Regenerative Medicine 4: 579-592 doi: 10.2217/rme.09.26

For additional publications, see Ant's ResearchGate profile.

NC3Rs blogs


PhD, Biology
University of Cambridge, 2001 - 2004
The ins and outs of calcium signalling: regulation of calcium entry and release in electrically non-excitable cells.