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NC3Rs | 20 Years: Pioneering Better Science

Dr Natalie Burden

Head of New Approach Methodologies (NAMs) Strategy
Portrait of Dr Natalie Burden

Natalie leads our strategy in accelerating the uptake and implementation of NAMs for safety assessment. She is a member of the Science and Technology Group.

View Natalie's Office-led projects.

External roles

  • Coordinator of the BTS Ecotoxicology Speciality Section and member of the BTS Scientific Subcommittee
  • Member of the SETAC Animal Alternatives Interest Group steering team
  • Member of HESI Next Generation Ecological Risk Assessment Committee steering team
  • Member of the Innovative Medicines Initiative Prioritisation and Risk Evaluation of Medicines in the EnviRonment (PREMIER) project scientific advisory board
  • Member of the International Collaboration on Cosmetics Safety (ICCS) scientific advisory committee
  • Member of the International Consortium to Advance Cross Species Extrapolation in Regulation (ICACSER) steering team
  • NC3Rs representative for the UK Cross-Whitehall New Approaches to Chemical Risk Assessment in the Regulatory Space (NACRARS) group
  • Member of the EPAA Environmental Safety Assessment project team

NC3Rs publications

Burden N et al. (2023). An international cross-laboratory survey on fish vitellogenin analysis: Methodological challenges and opportunities for best practice. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 145:105501. doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2023.105501

Brown RJ et al. (2023). Are changes in vitellogenin concentrations in fish reliable indicators of chemical-induced endocrine activity?.Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 266: 115563. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2023.115563

Mitchell CA et al. (2023). New approach methodologies for the endocrine activity toolbox: Environmental assessment for fish and amphibians. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 42(4): 757–777. doi: 10.1002/etc.5584

Langan LM et al. (2023). Big question to developing solutions: A decade of progress in the development of aquatic new approach methodologies from 2012 to 2022. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, advance online publication. doi: 10.1002/etc.5578

Burden, N et al. (2022) Investigating endocrine-disrupting properties of chemicals in fish and amphibians: Opportunities to apply the 3Rs. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management18(2) 442-458doi: 10.1002/ieam.4497

Katsiadaki I et al. (2021) Dying for change: A roadmap to refine the fish acute toxicity test after 40 years of applying a lethal endpoint. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 223:112585. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112585

Ortego LS et al. (2021) The Extended Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay: A thyroid-specific and less animal-intensive alternative to the Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 40(8):2135-2144. doi: 10.1002/etc.5078

Burden, N et al. (2021) Opportunities and challenges for integrating new in vitro methodologies in hazard testing and risk assessment. Small, 17(15):e2006298 doi: 10.1002/smll.202006298

Wheeler JR et al. (2021) Hormone data collection in support of endocrine disruption (ED) assessment for aquatic vertebrates: Pragmatic and animal welfare considerations. Environment International, 146:106287. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2020.106287

Burden N et al. (2020) Key opportunities to replace, reduce and refine regulatory fish acute toxicity tests. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 9(10):2076-2089. doi: 10.1002/etc.4824

Lagadic L et al. (2019) Recommendations for reducing the use of fish and amphibians in endocrine-disruption testing of biocides and plant protection products in Europe. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 15(4), 659–662. doi: 10.1002/ieam.4156

Myatt GJ et al. (2018) In silico toxicology protocols. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 96:1-17.  doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2018.04.014

Sewell F et al. (2018) The future trajectory of adverse outcome pathways: a commentary. Archives of Toxicology, 92(4):1657-1661. doi: 10.1007/s00204-018-2183-2

Burden N et al. (2017) Aligning nanotoxicology with the 3Rs: What is needed to realise the short, medium and long-term opportunities? Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 91:257-266. doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2017.10.021

Sewell F et al. (2017) Steps towards the international regulatory acceptance of non-animal methodology in safety assessment. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 89:50-56. doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2017.07.001

Burden N et al. (2017) Reducing repetition of regulatory vertebrate ecotoxicology studies. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 13(5):955-957. doi: 10.1002/ieam.1934

Sewell F et al. (2017) The current status of exposure-driven approaches for chemical safety assessment: A cross-sector perspective. Toxicology, 389:109-117. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2017.07.018

Burden N et al. (2017) Maximizing the success of bile duct cannulation studies in rats: Recommendations for best practice. Laboratory Animals, 51(5):457-464. doi:10.1177/0023677217698001

Burden N et al. (2017) Reducing the number of fish in regulatory bioconcentration testing: Identifying and overcoming the barriers to using the 1-concentration approach. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 13(1):212-214. doi:10.1002/ieam.1851

Burden N et al. (2017). The 3Rs as a framework to support a 21st century approach for nanosafety assessment. Nano Today, 12:10-13. doi:10.1016/j.nantod.2016.06.007

Lillicrap A et al. (2016) Alternative approaches to vertebrate ecotoxicity tests in the 21st century: A review of developments over the last 2 decades and current status. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 35(11):2637-2646. doi:10.1002/etc.3603

Burden N et al. (2016) The utility of QSARs in predicting acute fish toxicity of pesticide metabolites: A retrospective validation approach. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 80:241-246. doi:10.1016/j.yrtph.2016.05.032

Hutchinson TH et al. (2016) Promoting the 3Rs to enhance the OECD Fish Toxicity Testing Framework. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 76:231-233. doi:10.1016/j.yrtph.2016.02.006

Burden N et al. (2015) Pioneering better science through the 3Rs: An introduction to the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement, and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs). Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, 54(2):198-208. PMCID: PMC4382625

Burden N et al. (2015) Advancing the 3Rs in regulatory ecotoxicology: A pragmatic cross-sector approach. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 12(3):417-421. doi: 10.1002/ieam.1703

Burden N et al. (2015) Aligning the 3Rs with new paradigms in the safety assessment of chemicals. Toxicology, 330: 62-66. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2015.01.014

Burden N et al. (2015) Adverse outcome pathways can drive non-animal approaches for safety assessment. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 35(9):971-975. doi: 10.1002/jat.3165

Burden N et al. (2015) Testing chemical safety: What is needed to ensure the widespread application of non-animal approaches? PLoS Biology, 13(5):e1002156. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1002156

Burden N and Hutchinson TH (2015). Benefits of the ARRIVE guidelines for improving scientific reporting in ecotoxicology. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 34(11):2446-2448. doi: 10.1002/etc.3111

Burden N et al. (2014) Reducing the number of fish in bioconcentration studies for general chemicals by reducing the number of test concentrations. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 70(2): 442-445. doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2014.08.008

For additional publications, see Natalie's ResearchGate profile.


UK and European Registered Toxicologist (ERT)
Accredited since 2022

Postgraduate Certificate (PGCert), Chemical Risk Assessment
Brunel University London, 2014-2016

PhD, Neurophysiology
Brighton and Sussex Medical School, 2009-2012
Electrophysiological mechanisms underlying the neuritis model of chronic pain.